California leading in desalination plants // Using AI to stop wildfire // Two happy salmon stories // Health dangers at Aliso plant // P-75: California’s newest mountain lion // California science news roundup

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Week of June 28, 2019

Environment

California leading in desalination plants

Credit: Poseidon Water

California’s water woes seem to be improving after a very wet winter and record-setting snowpack. There’s so much water, in fact, that Lake Powell rose 16 feet in the last month and is experiencing an inflow of 128% above average. Reservoir levels across the state are all mostly at or above capacity. However, everyone knows how temporary these conditions are likely to be, and how easy it will be to return to drought conditions in the state.   

Yale360 takes a look at the state of desalination plants in Southern California, focusing on the Claude “Bud” Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant north of San Diego. It is the largest effort to turn salt water into fresh in North America, processing 100 million gallons of seawater a day (and making 50 million gallons). De-sal is on the rise. California water officials approved $34.4 million in grants to eight desalination projects across the state. Another huge plant the side of the Carlsbad plant is being built in Huntington, California.

But desalination has huge downsides. It is incredibly energy-intensive, it has high carbon emissions, and the waste from the plants (after removing salt from saltwater), is put back into the ocean, threatening sea life. The intake pipes that pull water from the ocean can also be hazardous to fish. That said, numerous countries threatened by global warming and increasing drought are building plants at warp speed, including Australia and Israel. Israeli companies, in fact, are at the forefront of de-sal technology.

As significant as the downsides are, it does seem like de-sal is here to stay. The oceans simply contain so much water, and as populations rise, temperatures soar, and fresh water becomes more scarce, de-sal is the obvious solution.  

Yale360


Environment

Using artificial intelligence to stop wildfires

Wikipedia

It’s impossible to forget the damage wrought by last year’s terrible wildfire season. It seems clear that the fires are yet another sign of a warming planet and the growing unpredictability in weather conditions. California public officials are bringing many new technologies to bear to try and better predict when fires may erupt in order to put them out more quickly and to save property and lives. 

The New York Times has a story about an effort by fire departments in Southern California to use big data and artificial intelligence to improve how they respond to these disasters. The fire department is testing a program developed by the WiFire Lab at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that makes predictions about fire behavior and where fire will spread next. It’s called FireMap. Using giant government data sets and on-the-ground sensors, it assembles real-time information about the presence of flammable materials, weather conditions, and the topology of a burning area. 

New York Times


Fisheries

Two positive salmon stories  

Source: Jessica Christian / The Chronicle

The news for California salmon over the years has not been great. Many of the species that were once abundant are either gone entirely or threatened. California Coho Salmon have been in serious decline since the mid-20th century. The California Coastal Chinook Salmon was federally listed as threatened in 1999. Some reports have suggested that many of the salmon populations in the state are unlikely to survive the century.

But according to news reports out this week, some California king salmon populations are experiencing a rebound in coastal waters off Northern California. Fishermen are reporting the biggest salmon season in a decade, and are hauling in kings by the hundreds. That’s good news for the fish and for those who plan to fire up the grill this summer. However, it does raise concerns about over-fishing the species just as it seems on the brink of a fragile recovery.  

Another hopeful salmon story over at the California Academy of Sciences amazing BioGraphic site looks at an effort to restore endangered populations of wild-spawning Chinook near Sacramento using flooded rice plains as a habitat surrogate during fallow months. The flooded rice fields essentially serve as winter nurseries for young salmon migrating from their natal streams to the ocean. A novel idea, and by no means a panacea, but a step in the right direction.  

San Francisco Chronicle          BioGraphic


Public Health

Aliso Canyon blowout could have more serious health risks than reported

The Aliso Canyon gas blowout (also called Porter Ranch gas leak) was the largest-known human-caused release of methane in U.S. history. The long-term health impacts around the blowout have yet to be determined, but researchers from UCLA’s Fielding School of Public Health released a report this week showing that air quality samples collected near the natural gas storage facility during the 2015 blowout were even worse than suspected. The samples showed elevated levels of pollutants known or suspected to be associated with serious health problems. The study suggests that the health risks to people living in the nearby residential community of Porter Ranch were higher than initially stated. 
 
“Our findings demonstrate that uncontrolled leaks or blowout events at natural gas storage facilities can release pollutants with the potential to cause not only environmental harm, but also adverse health consequences in surrounding communities,” said study first author Diane A. Garcia-Gonzales.  

Fielding School of Public Health


Animals

California welcomes its newest mountain lion: P-75

Credit: National Park Service

A new mountain lion (AKA cougar) was discovered by California wildlife officials this week. The 50-pound female was found at a trailer park in the Pacific Palisades, and it became the newest addition to an ongoing study on mountain lions in the Santa Monica Mountains. They have named it P-75.  State wildlife officials and biologists tranquilized the lion and outfitted it with a GPS tracking collar. They then released it into the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. 

More than half of California is mountain lion habitat, and while they’ve been known to attack people, it is extremely rare for them to do so. (That said, one poor chap was attacked by a mountain lion in Colorado earlier this year, and he choked it to death with his bare hands).

The fact is, however, the animals are facing serious threats to their existence. Habitat loss, highway strikes and accidental poisonings have killed several lions in recent years. One study suggests the lions, the Southern California group, specifically, are actually far more threatened than previously believed. The study claims that the lions are in the midst of a so-called “extinction vortex,” and face a 25 percent chance of extinction within 50 years. But that’s the bad news. The good news is Southern California has a new addition to its mountain lion family. We welcome you P-75! 

LA Times


California science news roundup

An op-ed by scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and NOAA looks at the unusual loss of grey whales this year off the California coast. 167 North Pacific gray whales have washed ashore dead from Mexico to Alaska since January. Scientists are not sure what’s going on. (NY Times)

lovely illustration on the value of pollinators in the city by visual storyteller Ariel Aberg-Riger.  Pollinating insects are hugely important in California. An estimated 1,200–1,500 native bee species call California home, and they are critical to the state’s agricultural industry. (CityLab)

One of the largest nurseries in the world, in California’s Central Valley, is experimenting with a technique to stress agricultural plants to prepare for declining water and escalating salt in an effort to confront climate change. (Bay Nature/KQED)  

Hog Island Oyster Co. and the University of California, Davis team upto breed acidification-resistant oysters. (Christian Science Monitor)

Shipping giant Maersk is introducing driverless cargo carriers at its terminal in the Port of Los Angeles, angering dockworkers. The carriers would operate 24 hours a day, as opposed to the 16 hours of shifts manned by dockworkers now. (LA Times)

Scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California have identified a previously unknown species of damselfish called the Corazon’s Damsel. It lives in Madagascar, and its Latin name Pomacentrus vatosoa means “beautiful stone.” (Times of San Diego)

profile of Caltech chemist Kimberly See, whose lab at Caltech is inventing new batteries to help reduce CO2 emissions and slow climate change. (CalTech Magazine)

Arnold Schwarzenegger stars in a funny…no, really, it’s good…new ad touting electric cars. (YouTube)

Monterey Bay Aquarium goes crazy for cuttlefish for Cephalopod Week. The aquarium is one of the few places that raise flamboyant cuttlefish. (Monterey Bay Aquarium / SciFri)

Taking a road trip from LA to Vegas and back to test the viability of electric cars. The problem: not enough range and not enough charging stations. (NY Times)

Drone maker DJI plans to manufacture drones for the US market in Cerritos, California. 

Great deep dive on the issue of relicensing dams in the West. Some are in need of huge and expensive repairs. What’s the cost to fix them and should some be pulled down? (Stanford’s Center for the American West)

Huntington Park has a new robot cop equipped with a 360-degree high-definition camera. But it looks more like a Weeble than Robocop. 

Trump Administration hopes to dredge San Francisco Bay to help ship oil.

Saving Sunset Magazine, one of the state’s oldest publications.

For cephalopod week, we posted several short videos from our recent diving/filming expedition in Indonesia. Here’s our favorite of the amazing and beautiful flamboyant cuttlefish. 

That’s it! Have a great week, and please send your friends an invitation to sign up for the California Science Weekly newsletter. 

Design by Luis Ramirez

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